Thermo-chemical plume

Thermo-chemical plume rising from the core-mantle boundary and interacting with an overlying, moving plate. The movie shows the isosurface of the chemical composition (here, the fraction of recycled oceanic crust).

Melt shear bands in 3D

Development of shear bands in a partially molten rock. The applied shear causes the porosity to localize in melt-rich bands. Isosurfaces illustrate the melt fraction.

Convection of a jellyfish

2d convection model that is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top. The aqua region in form of a jellyfish has a higher viscosity and deforms less than the surrounding material. The background shows the adaptively changing mesh and the temperature in a blue-red colorscale.

Melt generation in a rising mantle plume

Visualization of the ascent of a mantle plume, and melt generation and migration within the plume as it spreads below the lithosphere. Melt accumulates at the top of the plume head, and rises in diapirs as the plume approaches the lithosphere.

Global mantle convection coupled to melt migration,

Model of global mantle convection coupled to melting and melt migration. The upper part shows a model without melt migration, where the melt fraction is computed from the pressure and temperature conditions and does not actively influence convection of the solid. The lower part shows a model where melt migration and density differences due to melting are included.

Compressible convection model

Compressible 2d spherical convection model heated from the bottom and cooled from the top. The left panel shows the temperature, the right panel shows the viscosity.

Melt migration in a 2D mid-ocean ridge model

2d Cartesian mid-ocean ridge model with melt generation and transport. A fixed plate velocity away from the ridge axis is prescribed at the top and induces corner flow. Material is flowing in from the bottom, it melts due to decompression as is rises and the melt freezes again as it approaches the cold surface.

Iron isotope fractionation at the core-mantle boundary

Evolution of the lowermost mantle and development of a mantle plume. Colors represent the Delta57Fe anomalies. Thermodiffusion occurs in a thin layer above the core-mantle boundary where the temperature exceeds the iron solidus and isotopic anomalies start to develop.

Magnetic lineations created by seafloor spreading

Mid-ocean ridge model that shows how magnetic lineations are created on the sea floor as the magnetic field changes its orientation over time. As the material is advected away from the ridge axis, alternating stripes – symmetric with respect to the ridge axis – become visible.